Montag, 4. Juli 2016

ധ്രുവദീപ്തി // Panorama // India // A Land of Mystery // Dr. D. John, USA.

A Land of Mystery -

Ancient Culture and Science //
 Early Literature

Dr. D. John, USA.


Sanskrit manuscript
Vedic age-c. 1500-c. 500 BCE

The history of Indian literature dates back to 7th of B.C, when the VEDAS, a collection of old religious books stood like a monuments (Sigerist-1987) (Veda=knowledge). It was a source of knowledge at all times, including for Medicine and science. The Greek, the other earliest civilization known had nothing comparable to this at that period.

Veda taught the people how to live at peace with Gods, how to secure that protection, how to be safe amoung the hostile forces of the world, how to maintain or restore their health, how to win a girls love or fulfill other wishes.

It also contained speculation on the origin of the world, on the essence of the divine, and on man's nature and purpose in life. The Vedas (all in (hymns) became the starting point of all Indian philosophy. 

Rig veda, is the first of four series with 1028 hymns recited in connection with the sacrifices to God.

Yajur veda, the second, consists of five books, five collections of prayers and ritual texts.

Sama veda,  containing 1810 stanzas derived from Rigveda with chants for special occations.

Ather veda, is written in 20 books with 731 hymns dealing with prayers, incantations and charms.

Based on Vedas of other books like Upanishads and Bhagavad gita were written in poems.

  Lord Dhanvantari,
Avatar of Lord Vishnu
Vedic-Medical Science

  The essence of the philosophy was BRAHMA, the source of Universal spirit, the source of origin of all forces in nature, and the individual's spirit was a part of it. From this derived the theory of KARMA which means that man's sum tottal actions, present and future life, happiness and misery, are determined by his own actions. From this came the belief of reincarnation. 'Moral Perfection' is the only way to salvation.


 Just as christians believe in trinity, 'the faith in trinity'- BRAHMA, VISHNU, MAHESWARA-by hindus is centuries old.

  Period of Buddha

 This was the period when Buddha was born and had his enlightement (6th centuary B.C). He preached  a strictly moral and pure life with a love for all including the smallest creatures on earth.

Samkya Philosophy

Samkya Philosophy devoloped in 6th century B.C. which was strictly dualistic. It compares and contrasts the material world to the eternal world; a comparison of good and evil.


  From this developed the philosophy of Yoga. (Four Books). The aim of Yoga is the liberation of mind from material world. Ourself is pure and divine, but our mind, like the surface of a lake, is agitated within by memmories, emotions, urges and attachments through psychosomatic practieces the mind can gain control over the body. Buddha's posture is an example of the knowledge derived from Yoga.

 The Yogi will have vision, feelings of elation, ecstasy and occult powers. Finally he becomes one with God. This state of trence -communion with God-it is written in testaments.

Sree Krishna and Arjuna
at Kurukshetra,
Hindu Epic Mahabharata

From the teaching of Upanishads, Bhagavadgita- simply "Gita" (Song of God) and Bhrahmasutra came Vedanda, this has spread all over the world. It can be summed up in three basic propositions; that man's nature is divine, that the aim of life is to realize this divine nature and that all religions are essentially in agreement.(simplicity, rationalism and tolerance).

Reform Movements:

Jainism- Many movements sprang up from 6th century, B.C.oposing the above teachings for the salvation of soul. Thus Jainism originated which believed in rigid fasts and starvation unto death to attain the purity of soul.

Category of People:

The mountain ranges of Himalaya were the abode of Yoga for many Yogis through isolation, prayer, penance. This category of people called Brahmins, meaning derived from God, started the practice of medicine. Other categories were :
1. Kashatriya (Temple workers), 2. Vaishya (Middle class farm owners), 3, shudra (Untouchables, Menial Jobs). Brahmins believed that 'Health' is the supreme foundation of virtue, wealth, enjoyment and salvation. Diseases are the desstroyers of health.

Great masters : 

The great Ayurvedic 
Physician "Charaka"

 Atreya taught 6 disiples to write ' Charaka Samhitha', a collected works of Charaka. Later 'Agnivesat' family compiled this collectins. Another one is 'Bedha Samhitha'.

 The early Indus Civilization:

 When Ariens, the Indo European tribe, entered India in the 2nd Century,B.C. the 'Indus Valley' was a seat of civilization for five centuries.

 Stability of Indian Culture.

It is exemplified from the evidence obtained from archaelogical excavations, Sharama, 1971, which can be summarized as follows:

The Indus valley Civilization
Mohanjodaro and Harappa

1. Evidences from Harappa and Mohanjo Daro indicate that Indus valley civilizations was existing in 5000 B.C.
2. A port city of trade was excavated on west coast indicating the transaction with Egypt.
3. Indian sub continent was protected by nature, by tall mountains on north and north west and by sea on west, south and east. It has all the climates.
4. Original residents remained within the subcontinent and had no history of migration.
5. Though navigation was developed,India never became seafaring nation.
6. Invasion of Aryens pushed the local Dravidians to south but still they maintained the culture.
7. All ancient cities flourished near river banks and for salvation Hindus prayed to Ganges like Egiptians prayed to Nile.
8. Excavations of Mesopotamia indicate Indian symbols and styles pointing that the Indian civilization was established earlier. 

Indus Valley Civilization

 9. German scholars who lived many decades in India describe Sanskrit, the official language of ancient India, as 'perfect and finished' by all the qualities possessed by other tongues. The grammer written by "Panini",(3000 B.C) is one of the most remarkable works the world has ever seen.
 10. The Alphbets which represents all the sounds of the language (Phonetic Language) is so rich in literature and grammer that it has no comparison to other languages of the world.
 11. It is true that all these literature were transmitted by word of mouth in the beginning through hymns, prayers, and spirituel narrations.
12. Archeaological evidences now show that tree bark was processed for writting and clothing and that this knowledge was adopted by Mayas in second century B.C. (Tolstoy,1991.//-
Part II on next Article.

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